Cities, and in particular those in coastal low-lying areas, are becoming increasingly susceptible to climate change, the impact of which is worsened by the tendency for population concentration in these areas. Therefore, comprehensive early warning systems are necessary to minimize harm from extreme climate events on communities. Ideally, such a system would allow all stakeholders to acquire accurate up-to-date information and respond effectively. This paper presents a systematic review that highlights the significance, potential, and future directions of 3D city modelling, early warning systems, and digital twins in the creation of technology for building climate resilience through the effective management of smart cities. In total, 68 papers were identified through the PRISMA approach. A total of 37 case studies were included, among which (n = 10) define the framework for a digital twin technology, (n = 14) involve the design of 3D virtual city models, and (n = 13) entail the generation of early warning alerts using the real-time sensor data. This review concludes that the bidirectional flow of data between a digital model and the real physical environment is an emerging concept for enhancing climate resilience. However, the research is primarily in the phase of theoretical concepts and discussion, and numerous research gaps remain regarding the implementation and use of a bidirectional data flow in a true digital twin. Nonetheless, ongoing innovative research projects are exploring the potential of digital twin technology to address the challenges faced by communities in vulnerable areas, which will hopefully lead to practical solutions for enhancing climate resilience in the near future.
Title: Management of Climate Resilience: Exploring the Potential of Digital Twin Technology, 3D City Modelling, and Early Warning Systems
Authors: Khurram Riaz, Marion McAfee, Salem S. Gharbia
Cite as: Riaz, K.; McAfee, M.; Gharbia, S.S. Management of Climate Resilience: Exploring the Potential of Digital Twin Technology, 3D City Modelling, and Early Warning Systems. Sensors2023, 23, 2659. https://doi.org/10.3390/s23052659