The IST-ID published a new paper on 10th June 2022 in the international journal Water. This is available in open access.
This paper describes the long-term grid-point rainfall trends in the context of climate change, recent regionalised rainfall decline and drought events for mainland Portugal, which is teleconnected, in most cases, to the trends of mathematical descriptions of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) during the century from October 1919 to September 2019. Grid-point rainfall dataset (1919–2019, from 126 centroids in a regular mesh over the country) have been constructed from high-quality ground-based data and as such, it provides a reliable source for the analysis of rainfall trends at different timescales: October–December, January–March, December–March, and the hydrological year. The Mann–Kendall (MK) coupled with Sen’s slope estimator test are applied to quantify the trends. The Sequential Mann–Kendall (SQMK) analysis is implemented to obtain the fluctuation of the progressive trends along the studied 100-year period. Because of their pivotal role in linking and synchronising climate variability, teleconnections to the North Atlantic Ocean are also explored to explain the rainfall trends over the Portuguese continuum. The results provide a solid basis to explain the climate change effects on the Portuguese rainfall based on significant associations with strong negative correlations between changes in rainfall and in NAO indices. These strong opposing correlations are displayed in most of the winter seasons and in the year. After the late 1960s, a generalised rainfall decrease emerges against a background of significant upward trends of the NAO; such coupled behaviour has persisted for decades. Regionalised droughts at three identified climatic regions, based on factor analysis and Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI), are also discussed, concluding that the frequency of severe droughts may increase again, accompanied by a stronger influence of the recently more positive and unusual winter season and annual NAO indices.
Title: Grid-Point Rainfall Trends, Teleconnection Patterns, and Regionalised Droughts in Portugal (1919–2019)
Authors: Luis Angel Espinosa and Maria Manuela Portela
Cite as: Espinosa, L.A.; Portela, M.M. Grid-Point Rainfall Trends, Teleconnection Patterns, and Regionalised Droughts in Portugal (1919–2019). Water 2022, 14, 1863. https://doi.org/10.3390/w14121863